# How is total station calculated?

## How is total station calculated?

Angles and distances are measured from the total station to points under survey, and the coordinates (X, Y, and Z; or easting, northing, and elevation) of surveyed points relative to the total station position are calculated using trigonometry and triangulation.

## How does total station measure distances?

A total station consists of a theodolite with a built-in distance meter (distancer), and so it can measure angles and distances at the same time. The horizontal distance, the height difference and the coordinates are calculated automatically and all measurements and additional information can be recorded.

What is theodolite and total station?

Theodolites measure horizontal and vertical angles only. A theodolite can be mechanical or electronic. A total station can measure angles and distances electronically and process trigonometrically to give us, at a minimum, position coordinates in space.

What does the total station measure?

A total station is a theodolite with an integrated distance meter that can measure angles and distances simultaneously.

### Which Total Station is best?

Topcon/Sokkia Total Stations – A staple in the construction industry. Leica Total Stations – Known for their robotics, tracking, and GNSS systems. Spectra/Nikon – A solid option that is an excellent best bang for your buck.

### What is the purpose of Total Station?

A total station is an optical instrument commonly used in construction, surveying and civil engineering. It is useful for measuring horizontal angles, vertical angles and distance — it does this by analyzing the slope between itself and a specific point.

What do surveyors use to measure distance?

How do surveyors measure distance? The most common surveying equipment is called a theodolite. Theodolites are used to measure the horizontal and vertical angles between points.

What is the difference between EDM and total station?

Electronic distance measurement (EDM) is a method of determining the length between two points using electromagnetic waves. EDM is commonly carried out with digital instruments called theodolites. Devices known as total stations share similarities with theodolites and can be used to measure distances as well as angles.

#### What is the working principle of total station?

The total station consists of a built-in emitter, capable of emitting microwaves and infrared signals. The wavelength of these emitted waves helps in calculating the distance between the points. Here the distance is calculated by multiplying the time taken to cover a certain distance by the velocity.

#### What is the purpose of total station?

What’s the difference between theodolite and total station?

THEODOLITE The theodoliteis used to measure horizontal and vertical angles for exact survey work Compared to transit, theodoliteare: Compact Lightweight More accuracy and precise Transits are more common in the U.S. but are being replaced by theodolite 8 TYPE OF THEODOLITE

How is the distance measured in a theodolite?

A reflector or transmitter receiver at the far end reflects the light or microwaves back to the instrument where they are analyzed electronically to give the distance between the two points (Francis, 1982) 30 ELECTROMAGNETIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT (EDM)

## Can a circle be instantaneously zeroed in theodolite?

Circles can be instantaneously zeroed, or initialized to any value Angles can be measured with increasing values either left or right Angles measured by repetition can be added to provide a total larger than 360 ° Mistakes in reading angles are greatly reduced Speed of operation is increased Cost of instrument is lower 15 THEODOLITE READING

## What are the advantages of electronic digital theodolite?

ELECTRONIC DIGITAL THEODOLITE Automatically reads and records horizontal and vertical angles Eliminates the manual reading of scales on graduated circles 14 ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRONIC DIGITAL THEODOLITE