What does mitral annular calcification mean?
What does mitral annular calcification mean?
Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a chronic degenerative process of the mitral valve ring; it was first described in 1908 by Bonninger as associated with complete heart block.
What is Caseous calcification?
Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is a very rare variant of mitral annular calcification, which is typically asymptomatic but can manifest as a cardiac tumour, abscess, or in the form of mitral valve dysfunction.
How is mitral annular calcification treated?
No surgical treatment is indicated for mitral annular calcification (MAC), unless correction of concomitant mitral regurgitation or mitral stenosis is needed. In fact, severe MAC makes valve surgery more difficult.
What is Caseous Mac?
Caseous mitral annular calcification (CMAC) is a variant of mitral annular calcification (MAC) with a central liquefaction necrosis. The echocardiographic prevalence of CMAC is approximately 0.6% in patients with MAC and 0.06–0.07% in large series of patients of all ages.
Is mitral annular calcification serious?
Mitral annular calcification is usually of no clinical significance and no specific treatment such as MitraClip is required. Those with mitral annular calcification are at increased risk of cardiac events, although this is still relatively small, likely due to the presence of traditional cardiac risk factors.
What causes calcium buildup on mitral valve?
The most common disease that causes mitral valve calcification is rheumatic valve disease. This typically occurs when a streptococcal throat infection affects the valve during youth but will not become evident until adolescence or adulthood.
What are mitral valve Commissures?
The commissures define a distinct area where the anterior and posterior leaflets come together at their insertion into the annulus. Several millimeters of valvular tissue separates the free edge of the commissures from the annulus.
What is Caseous necrosis?
Caseous necrosis or caseous degeneration (/ˈkeɪsiəs/) is a unique form of cell death in which the tissue maintains a cheese-like appearance. It is also a distinctive form of coagulative necrosis. The dead tissue appears as a soft and white proteinaceous dead cell mass.
What is dystrophic calcification?
Dystrophic calcification is deposition of calcium salt in degenerated tissues with the absence of a systemic mineral imbalance. It is often associated with trauma, infection, or inflammation and rarely appears in the head and neck area.
What are the symptoms of a calcified mitral valve?
- Shortness of breath, especially with activity or when you lie down.
- Fatigue, especially during increased activity.
- Swollen feet or legs.
- Sensations of a rapid, fluttering heartbeat (palpitations)
- Chest discomfort or chest pain.
- Coughing up blood.
- Dizziness or fainting.
- Heart murmur.
What causes calcification in the heart?
Calcium is a mineral found in your blood. As blood repeatedly flows over the aortic valve, calcium deposits can build up on the heart valves (aortic valve calcification).
Can a calcified mitral valve be repaired?
Replacement surgery is usually preferred if you have a hard, calcified mitral valve ring (annulus) or widespread damage to the valve and surrounding tissue. The disadvantages of mitral valve replacement include the following: A tissue valve may need to be replaced after a certain number of years.
When does caseous calcification of the mitral annulus occur?
Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is a rare form of mitral annular calcification occurring in 0.6% of the cases of MAC 1. It is a degenerative disorder common in the elderly, in particular women, that typically affects the posterior annulus commissure 1 .
Is there any treatment for mitral annular calcification?
Treatment and prognosis. Annular calcification per se does not require any treatment. Instead, patients are managed according to the presence of heart block, mitral regurgitation (usually minimal) and other cardiovascular signs and symptoms.
Which is more sensitive for annular calcification CT or MRI?
CT is more sensitive for calcification of the annulus although it depends on the degree of motion artefact (which is a factor of heart rate and scan time). Annular calcification per se does not require any treatment.
What do you need to know about annular calcification?
Mitral annular calcification 1 Epidemiology. Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. 2 Clinical presentation. Although annular calcification is associated with mitral regurgitation, this is usually trivial and asymptomatic. 3 Pathology. 4 Radiographic features. 5 Treatment and prognosis.