What is an extracellular polymeric matrix?

What is an extracellular polymeric matrix?

What is an extracellular polymeric matrix?

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) are natural polymers of high molecular weight secreted by microorganisms into their environment. EPSs are mostly composed of polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides) and proteins, but include other macro-molecules such as DNA, lipids and humic substances.

What are EPS in biofilms?

EPS are biopolymers of microbial origin in which biofilm microorganisms are embedded. In fact, archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic microbes produce the biopolymers. Contrary to common belief, EPS are certainly more than only polysaccharides.

What is the role of the EPS layer in a biofilm?

EPS is the main component of the biofilm matrix providing the structure of the biofilm and functions by helping in maintaining overall biofilm health, including bacterial adhesion and cohesion, retention of water, formation of a protective barrier against chemical challenges, ie, antimicrobials or biocides, sorption of …

What is meant by polymeric substances?

Definition. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are molecules having a range of sizes, compositions, and chemical properties that are produced and secreted by bacteria and other microorganisms, and contribute to the cell adaptability, resiliency, and functional roles in environments.

What causes extracellular polymeric?

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are polymers biosynthesized by several strains of microorganisms. Composed mainly of polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA, the production of these slimes is triggered primarily by environmental signals.

What kind of extracellular polymeric substance does P fluorescens produce?

Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 produced biofilms that were comprised of extensive, extracellular non-periodic webs of fine (< 20 nm wide) cellulose fibers [12].

Is rubber a polymeric material?

Natural rubber is a polymer, a long, chain like molecule that contains repeating subunits. The term polymer comes from the Greek “poly” meaning many and “mer” meaning parts. The chemical name for natural rubber is polyisoprene.

What is the main role for the extracellular polymeric substances?

Extracellular polymeric substances are responsible for the cohesion of microorganisms and adhesion of biofilms to surfaces, influencing spatial organization, allowing interactions among microorganisms, and acting as adhesives between cells (Wolfaardt et al., 1999).

How can biofilms be harmful?

Because the protective shell can keep out potential treatments, biofilms are at their most dangerous when they invade human cells or form on sutures and catheters used in surgeries. In American hospitals alone, thousands of deaths are attributed to biofilm-related surgical site infections and urinary tract infections.

What diseases are caused by biofilms?

However, biofilms are more often associated with many pathogenic forms of human diseases and plant infections. One common example is cystic fibrosis, the most frequently passed genetic disorder in Western Europe. Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from chronic P. aeruginosa infections.

What do you mean by extracellular polymeric substance?

Extracellular polymeric substance. Extracellular polymeric substances ( EPSs) are natural polymers of high molecular weight secreted by microorganisms into their environment. EPSs establish the functional and structural integrity of biofilms, and are considered the fundamental component that determines the physiochemical properties…

How are extracellular polymeric substances used in biofilms?

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are fundamental constituents of biofilms and can improve the biofilm community’s ability to scavenge both water and nutrients from the environment when either are limiting, promoting persistent metabolism in atypical conditions. From: Methods in Microbiology, 2018

How are microbial exopolymers used in the ocean?

Over the span of different ocean environments, microbial flora take up dissolved organics and ions, and then secrete polymeric organic compounds. These secretions, called exopolymers or extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), are abundant and become mixed with other forms of organic matter within ocean systems.

What is the EPS matrix of a biofilm?

The EPS matrix of biofilms provides a three-dimensional architecture framework that allows the arrangements of cells movements relative to other microbes as well as positioning among sharp geochemical gradients ( Decho, 2000b ). This will not be discussed further here, but directly contributes to the remarkable plasticity of biofilm cells.