How do lipids affect atherosclerosis?

How do lipids affect atherosclerosis?

How do lipids affect atherosclerosis?

High serum lipid levels, especially the elevated level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), have been shown to be strongly related to the development of atherosclerosis. It is generally accepted that atherosclerotic lesions are initiated via an enhancement of LDL uptake by monocytes and macrophages.

What causes inflammation in atherosclerosis?

The chronic inflammatory process involving the arterial endothelium that ultimately results in the complications of atherosclerosis may be caused by a response to the oxidative components of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or to chronic infection, free radicals, or other factors.

What is the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is a disease of chronic inflammation, characterized by a dysfunctional interplay between the immune apparatus and lipids. Immune cells, as well as nonimmune cells, drive plaque inflammation through a complex crosstalk of inflammatory mediators.

What lipids cause inflammation?

SFAs are pro-inflammatory lipid compounds, with many studies demonstrating that treatment of various cell types with SFAs broadly activates inflammatory signaling in macrophages, adipocytes, myocytes, hepatocytes, etc.

Which type of lipoprotein contributes most to atherosclerosis?

LDL and HDL are known as the “bad” and “good” cholesterol, respectively. Thus, elevated levels of LDL are linked to premature development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, while high levels of HDL appear to be protective.

Why are statins used as drugs for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis?

Currently, statins are the first-line treatment in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease [18]. They work by inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis—3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase [19].

Is atherosclerosis a chronic inflammation?

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries that causes ischemic heart disease, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease, collectively called cardiovascular disease (CVD).

How does chronic inflammation lead to atherosclerosis?

Repeated cycles of inflammation lead to accumulation of macrophages, some of which can die in this location, producing so-called necrotic core, and induce smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration in lesion to form fibrous cap of advanced complicated stable atherosclerotic lesion (stable plaque).

What fats are bad for inflammation?

Foods that are linked to an inflammatory response include: saturated fats which are found in animal products, such as red meat and whole fat dairy products, trans fats which are found in fried foods and baked goods such as pastries, pizza dough, pie crust, cookies and crackers, omega-6 polyunsaturated fats which are …

Are lipids inflammatory?

CD14 acts as a co-factor for the Toll-like receptor TLR4 to activate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharides. In Immunity, Zanoni et al. report that CD14 recognizes host-derived inflammatory lipids composed of oxidized phosphrylcholine derivatives released from dying cells.

Which type of lipid is most linked to atherosclerosis?

LDL is the “bad cholesterol” transporter, and clinically, elevated levels of LDL are associated with atherosclerosis.