Adolescence is generally considered a difficult period, although many young people going through puberty quietly. The physician should determine whether normally takes mental development and social adaptation of teenagers. The transition to adult life involves independence, the formation of gender identity issues about learning and work, the ability to build a close relationship. In addition, changes in the adolescent mind, and it affected his personal and social life.
Mental and physical development is not always parallel.
In early adolescence (10-13 years) children are often very serious, and sometimes sensitive about their appearance changes.
Accelerated mental development, formed the thinking in the middle adolescence (14-16 years). Teenager becomes aware of abstract concepts, to challenge the view of adults. On average, teen person leaves the egocentric world sociocentric, trained to restrain their desires.
In late adolescence (juvenile) age (17-21 years) to strengthen the personal qualities and affection, the man takes place in society. Beliefs become more adults are becoming increasingly important social relations. At this age, the teenager often idealistic and comes into conflict with others, based on moral principles, not personal interests.
The family should help the young person to go to adult life, gradually increasing its share of responsibility and autonomy. For the formation of personality and adapt to life as a teenager need independence, and support the family and society. The doctor, for its part should encourage the teenager to make decisions, to help the sick teenagers in the awareness of responsibility for their own health, to encourage parents to participate in a smaller treatment.
Psychological characteristics of adolescence
Hormones and behavior
Puberty is associated with specific changes in behavior. An important role is played by androgens. At the height of the pubertal growth acceleration (stage 3-4 Tanner) boys tend to conflict with her mother, the mother and gradually more and more inferior to them. Girls at this age, too, often arguing with my mother, and less talk with his father. For the appearance of interest to persons of the other sex and proper sexual behavior are also responsible androgens. With increasing levels of testosterone boys begin to seek sexual intercourse, become impatient, irritable and aggressive. With increasing levels of adrenal androgens, girls are more likely to masturbate and show an increased interest in boys.
Delayed sexual development affects the mental state and behavior of the teenager. Girls, who have reached physical maturity early, often dissatisfied with their bodies, suffer from low self-esteem, feel unhappy. Not receiving support peers, they seek to communicate with older teenagers. These girls before others become sexually active, they can fairly early identity crisis, they are stronger than seeking independence, are less interested in their studies, they have behavioral problems are more common. In boys, early physical maturation leads to early sexual activity, and later – to psychological abnormalities: low self-esteem, perceptions of their physical inferiority, and frequent crises of identity.
In the second decade of life, the child falls into a new social environment, and it can affect their health. Parents have less follow the child, and out of school, he is more free to choose an occupation, which contributes to the emergence of dangerous behaviors. In place of a primary school, custodial pupil come crowded secondary and higher educational establishments with the lack of individual approach and less organized. In addition, in the US the reorganization of the social sphere in the 90s. It has led to a reduction in after-school educational programs. Adolescent workers to fend for themselves in an even greater degree. Negatively impact on the health of children and adolescents, decrease in material well-being.
In most states in the US treatment of children less than 18 years is carried out only with the consent of the parents. This does not prevent to provide medical care, but sometimes it does not allow the teenager to see a doctor on sensitive issues (such as human sexuality, and drug use). According to the Principle of legal capacity of minors, adolescents have the right himself to seek medical help if he is able to understand the dangers and benefits of treatment, wasps give consent. Usually, the doctor is not held accountable for the treatment of minors over 14 years without the knowledge of parents, if it was directed to the benefit of, or carried out in case of emergency. In many states, adolescents have the right to see a doctor on sensitive issues (sexually transmitted diseases, contraception, pregnancy, drug use and some psychological issues) without parental consent. For emergency aid parental consent is not required. Fully responsible for their health have the right to separate minors (young people living alone, without parental care, financially independent, unmarried soldiers).