What is hippocampal sclerosis?
What is hippocampal sclerosis?
Hippocampal sclerosis is the commonest cause of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults, and is associated with alterations to structures and networks beyond the hippocampus.In addition to being a cause of epilepsy, the hippocampus is vulnerable to damage from seizure activity.
Can hippocampal sclerosis be cured?
When an MRI shows hippocampal sclerosis in the medial temporal lobe and EEGs show seizures starting in that same area, seizures may be cured by surgery. In some cases, up to 7 out of 10 people can be seizure-free after surgery with few problems afterwards.
What causes TLE?
The causes of TLE include mesial temporal sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, brain infections, such as encephalitis and meningitis, hypoxic brain injury, stroke, cerebral tumours, and genetic syndromes. Temporal lobe epilepsy is not the result of psychiatric illness or fragility of the personality.
What does mesial temporal sclerosis mean?
Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is a term used to describe scarring in the deep part of the temporal lobe of the brain. MTS is the most common cause of structural epilepsy and focal seizures in the temporal lobe.
How common is hippocampal sclerosis?
Incidence and Demographics Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common finding in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery in adolescent and adult patients, although the incidence seems to be decreasing. It comprises approximately 56% to 70% of cases of medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.
Is hippocampal sclerosis progressive?
Hippocampal sclerosis is a progressive disorder: a longitudinal volumetric MRI study. Ann Neurol.
How do you get tuberous sclerosis?
Tuberous sclerosis is caused by changes (mutations) in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. These genes are involved in regulating cell growth, and the mutations lead to uncontrolled growth and multiple tumours throughout the body.
How is tle diagnosed?
TLE is diagnosed by a history of characteristic partial seizure symptoms. The diagnosis is confirmed by the capture of a typical episode during an electroencephalogram (EEG) or video-EEG, with epileptiform activity over one or both temporal regions.
How is mesial temporal sclerosis treated?
Mesial temporal sclerosis treatments generally consist of managing the epilepsy symptom by using either anticonvulsant medication or, if medication is not effective, surgery. Surgical treatments for intractable epilepsy include a temporal lobectomy or vagal nerve stimulation.
What kind of Neuropathology is hippocampal sclerosis ( HS )?
Hippocampal sclerosis ( HS) is a neuropathological condition with severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus, specifically in the CA-1 (Cornu Ammonis area 1) and subiculum of the hippocampus. It was first described in 1880 by Wilhelm Sommer. Hippocampal sclerosis is a frequent pathologic finding in community-based dementia.
When was hippocampal sclerosis first described by Wilhelm Sommer?
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a neuropathological condition with severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus, specifically in the CA-1 (Cornu Ammonis area 1) and subiculum of the hippocampus. It was first described in 1880 by Wilhelm Sommer.
Can a person with hippocampal sclerosis have epilepsy?
Generally, hippocampal sclerosis may be seen in some cases of epilepsy, particularly temporal lobe epilepsy. It is important to clarify the nature of insults that most likely have caused the hippocampal sclerosis and have initiated the epileptogenic process.
Is there a link between hippocampal sclerosis and TDP 43?
MRI scan commonly displays increased T2 signal and hippocampal atrophy. Mesial temporal sclerosis might occur with other temporal lobe abnormalities (dual pathology). Mesial temporal sclerosis is the most common pathological abnormality in temporal lobe epilepsy. It has been linked to abnormalities in TDP-43.