The famous psychological experiments on students
Students are not just part progressive humanity, the young and the driving force of the revolution, but also a huge field for experiments. In the 20th century, there were many professors and researchers, who for the experiments was necessary experimental material learned. In addition, these expert minds have not missed your chance to run an experiment on defenseless students. Do not rush to complain about their teacher and say it – insensitive monster. ‘Better to read the article. Say what psychological experiments carried out on the poor Students cruel teacher, and that came out of it. A left wondering, once this is still remembered.
Experiment – specific scientific expertise, the method of research of some phenomena under controlled conditions by the investigator. Now the experiments of the students, that in our time it is unlikely that someone will be able to repeat.
It ‘was at the University of Minnesota in 1924. Professor Chris Landis has studied human emotions, using as its students of India.
The essence of this experiment was the following: firstly, a professor in a certain way evoked strong emotions of the subjects, and then photographed the face of the subject. Among the ways to achieve, the emotional states were malodorous ammonia, listen to music, and watch films, placing hands in a bucket of frogs. However, it is all flowers in comparison with the fact that Landis has prepared its students to “sweet.” At the end of the test, you were required head cut a live mouse. Such methods are truly caused a storm of emotions and scandal in the scientific world. It ‘interesting that the first segment is refusing to comply with a request of Landis students, at the end; through the mouse “cannot” is still beheaded.
His experiment did not reach the targets – some regularity in terms of people and it was not possible to identify a clear link with the emotions. However, it became clear how easily people obey authority. In other words, the words of a classic, “there are people in the world who are ready to meet the most idiotic order, if it is the voice well trained pronounced with a strong reverb.”
Stanford Prison Experiment
Venue – Stanford University, 1971. In comparison, the experiment Landis – just a kindergarten. He held this experience psychologist and professor Philip Zimbardo, who, incidentally, is the current specialist until now.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the causes of the conflict in prisons and military establishments. In fact, Zimbardo not conceived nothing wrong, but it was just the opposite. mentally healthy students of 24 people randomly into two groups were divided specially selected – the “guards” and “prisoners”. Zimbardo himself has also participated in the experiment as a “guardian”.
Prison staged Samu based on the Department of Psychology, as close to real conditions. “Observers” wore uniforms and batons, the prisoners – a muslin robes and slippers. We were created such conditions, when all the power was in the hands of “guards” which, however, have received from Zimbardo complete freedom of action and farewell to create feelings of anguish, fear and tyranny of “prisoners.
The first day everything went quietly, the subjects do not really even know how to behave. However, from the second day, “guards” began to show sadistic tendencies in relation to the “conclusion.” According to the experiment results every third observer (in life – “a good guy”) showed a real sadist. “Observers” willingly remained unpaid night shifts, and “prisoners”, on the contrary, have experienced severe stress and nervous disorders. An interesting fact is that the developed “guards” with no specific guidance control system has a lot to do with the current prison systems.
Scheduled for two weeks of the experiment, unfortunately many of the “agents,” the day was closed 6, when the professor bride has seen the results of his work, and said: “What do you do with them – terrible”
Stanford prison experiment – a great example of how people can go far when they have behind them to justify their actions and ideology of orders from above.
Experiment with the “Good Samaritan”
Year 1973. The experiment was conducted on two groups of seminary students. The first group was asked to prepare a report on the Samaritan who helped the traveler on the road. The second group was preparing a report on the device to work. Then it was the students need to go to a different audience to present their reports. At the same time, convincing the students were asked not to linger.
On their way from building to building, they reported happened upon a man lying on the ground. The man (a fake, of course) it seemed that he needed help. Interestingly, the students have reacted exactly the same way, regardless of the division of the group – only 10% of the subjects stopped to see if he needed help.
Nice and simple illustration of how easily most people refuse religious and ethical imperatives, if it suits them.
Guinea pigs were not only students, but it was too interesting experiment has proved, so to say about it. Psychologist Stanley Milgram studied the ability of people to harm other people, doing someone’s order.
The essence of the experiment was as follows. The selected volunteers were told that the experiment is to study the relation of punishment and learning. The subject and actor trained have played a role between the teacher and the student. The role of the teacher always got the subject.
The student had to answer questions and the teacher (subject) in the case of a wrong answer is passed through the student body of the electric charge. Of course, in reality, no cost was not, but the teacher did not know before he was a booth with 15 to 450 volts switches. For each error, the student, the teacher had to increase the voltage and the individual switches have been signed. For example, a 300V designated as “portable hard blow”, but the last two bore the “XX”. The student and the teacher were separated by a wall, and the room with the subject was a man in a white coat – the head of the experiment, which asked teachers gradually increase the tension, with a total of four sentences: “There please continue”, “the experiment requires that you continue”, “Much is important that you continue”, “you have no choice, you have to continue”.
Virtually all experts were convinced before the experiment, that the mark of 450 volts to a maximum of a man of forty participants. The results were shocking. 63% of the subjects reached the unloading uses 450 volts, despite the fact that the room the student already at discharge 150 volts demands were heard to terminate the experiment at discharge in 300 Volt – shouts and blows in the wall, and when he hit to 315 students Volt and everything was silent. The experiment was carried out several times under different conditions, but the result is always substantially the same. Milgram Experiment with shocking clarity showed how great the power of authority and how people tend to obey him.
We are lucky that we live in a time when such experiments are unlikely to be possible. On the other hand, these experiments, even cruel and immoral, has allowed us to look into the depths of human nature, and to make serious steps in the development of psychology.
The main thing is in any situation remains the people not to lose heart and to help each other.