An explanation of the success of modern biochemistry, the fundamental nature of the life and molecular basis of diseases, including genetic diseases in humans, but also in the structure and function of proteins and nucleic acids in order to Determine, to a large extent “An Introduction Overall, the biochemical achievements of physics, chemistry and mathematics.
The alliance of science not only allowed a more detailed study of the structure and function of individual chemical components of living matter at the molecular level to develop methodological approaches but also contributed to the development of new trends in the field of biochemistry, biology, including bioorganic chemistry and molecular enzymology.
Before moving to Enzimology health problems, the cards, the main function of a list of enzymes, in not only humans and animals, but also a separate living cell. The most important and perhaps the most important feature of enzymes is their ability to significantly increase (in tens or hundreds of thousands of millions of times) the rate of chemical reactions, which enzymes act as catalysts in many reactions Chemicals per second for all living systems. Enzymes are chemical reaction rate regulators to control the process of synthesis and chemical degradation of individual components of cells and the whole organism. Since these systems have living enzymes provides a constant internal environment (known as homeostasis); Different from the modern industrial production capacity large-scale or function, high efficiency, economy, rationality and precision results of jewelry in the cells that mikrospaces (no product, no waste, polluting ‘environment).
Enzymes are important to counter the protective role of exogenous (external) and endogenous (produced in the body) to the toxic substance; the final impact of the different oxidation enzymes is reduced and eventually the disintegration products lose their toxic properties. This area of research is xenobiochemistry.
Enzymes are also used as a tool to create the chemical synthesis of light from biological, microbiological and pharmaceutical (protein production for animal feed, hormones, antibiotics and other drugs, and Amino acids L), as well as genetic engineering and biotechnology.
Because the health problems of enzyme doctrine involves, first, that the study one of the most promising fields of enzymes are emphasized – medical enzymology – is a logical development of the general formation of biological enzymes. Currently produces solid evidence that modern biology and medicine speak the language and enzymology, the possibility of using enzymes in medicine is theoretically unlimited. Particularly well defined three main areas of medical research in enzymology: enzyme pathology, enzyme diagnostic and enzymatic therapy. These problems are called national and international conferences, symposia and conferences, published notice of scientific journals (e.g., “Medical Chemistry Problems”) published annual collections, etc. are also in each of these fields of Enzymology are concerned not Only their specific objectives and objectives, but also specific methodological approaches and teaching methods. In a better understanding of the direction of the first medical instrument Enzymology, particularly enzyme pathology, especially the use of enzymes for the diagnosis of organ and functional alterations in organ and organ-specific diseases.
Field enzyme pathology, although it contains the name of the disease (study of the causes and progression of the mechanisms of the disease), in fact, is the basic theory of medical enzymology. It was designed to study the molecular basis for the development of the disease based on violations of these regulatory mechanisms of enzymatic activity or the synthesis of enzymes or specific groups. These enzymes not only have exceptional properties of the catalyst, but also high specificity organotropic, and can be used as very thin tools and targeting selective pathological process. As is well known, released more than two thousand molecular mechanisms genetic human disease, the development of only 2:00 to 3:00 years old. In most cases, the disease is directly related to a congenital deficiency or complete absence of the synthesis of an enzyme in a patient.
A typical example of the disease, and lack of enzyme in the synthesis of hepatic phenylpyruvic mental retardation – a hereditary disease of death in children in early childhood or lead to development of severe mental retardation. Diseases of molecular defects caused by significant obstruction phenylalanine (clock) conversion, tyrosine (Tyr), according to equation
It has been found that the enzyme, which catalyzes this reaction, Phe-4-hydroxylase and not Phe-4-monooxygenase, has not been synthesized in liver cells, the only organ that is normally open. The consequence of disorders of molecular phenylalanine metabolism develop a serious genetic disease caused by excessive accumulation of phenylalanine and derivatives such changes – phenylpyruvic (such as the name of the disease) – the body especially in children’s brain tissue and serum. The diagnosis is usually based on a chemical reaction of phenylalanine opening acids or phenylated diapers. Treatment is essentially limited to the elimination of infant (mother’s milk) phenylalanine. An essential amino acid for the child tyrosine.
The development of other serious hereditary diseases – galactosemia, lactose intolerance, due to lack of synthesis in liver cells, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glucose to galactose. The consequence of this divergence is the accumulation in the development of tissues and cataracts galactose at an age, liver and young cerebral tissue, which often leads to the death of the child; Treatment in this case is limited by diet excluding lactose.
In addition to genetic diseases, solves successfully the problem of the source of enzyme pathology somatic disorders, not the cause of causative factors, disorders, such as the mechanisms of common human diseases. Especially since one of the main organized centers and scientific institutes (Cancer Research Center, Center for Research in Cardiology, Institute of Rheumatology RAM), whose task is to elucidate the molecular basis of, for example, malignant growth, Atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is not difficult, a large part of enzyme systems or enzymes even individual deregulation of activity or is possible, leading to the development and formation of the process of the disease of synthesis.
The second line of research in Enzymology – liver enzymes tests – for the dosage of enzymatic treatment based on the determination of the activity (level) of enzymes and isoenzymes in biological fluids in the body of the patient (blood serum, Juice of the stomach or alcohol duodenum, urine, etc.), the developed part in two directions: the first search path organotropic, tissuetropic or enzymes, which are specific for an organ or organs included in the human body. On the other hand, to determine the enzymatic activity in a biological medium, in order to improve the methods described in the literature.
Enzymology great success diagnosis allows the doctor to not only diagnose and determine the extent of the disease, but also to determine the precision of the selected treatment method. We have now found a loss of biological fluid to develop different levels of calculation methods for the analysis of a large number of classical enzymes. For each of these enzyme values (level) defined activity limits and normal fluctuations of serum and organs.